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他山之石|周海涛、朱玉成:教育督导的国际共性特征和我国变革动向

他山之石|周海涛、朱玉成:教育督导的国际共性特征和我国变革动向

发布时间:2021-10-30 09:07 浏览量: 字体:

摘要:近年来各国教育督导体制呈现出独立性、服务性、多样性以及专业性。与此相比,我国教育督导工作在取得明显进展和长足进步的同时,也存在一些问题。一是教育督导基层组织的相对独立设置改革有待推进; 二是教育督导职能的评估、监测、指导作用有待强化; 三是教育督导方式的发展性、多样性、开放性有待拓展; 四是教育督导队伍的结构、专业性和晋升通道有待优化。在新时代要发挥教育督导作用,必须实现教育督导更 “有位” “有味” “有为” 和 “有威”。以这四个方面的改革为切入口,加快实现教育督导机制的独立化、科学化、多元化和专业化。

congxitonglundeshijiaokan,xiandaijiaoyuguanlishitongguojuece、zhixing、jiandusangebiheyouxudezixitongxiediaoyunzuoershixiande。juecezhengque、zhixingyouxiaohejiandudelishishixianjiaoyukexueguanlidezhongyaobaozhang,erjueceshifouwanshan,zhixingzenmegaijin,junyoulaiyuyangedejianduhekexuedepinggu。ruguozhiyoujuece、zhixinglianggehuanjie,ermeiyouzhuanmenjigouduicijinxingjiandu、fankuiyuyindao,jiaoyuzhengcejiurongyifashengpiancha,chuxianjuececengmangyuxiawenjian、fazhishi,erhushizhengceshijizhixingxiaoguodeqingxiang。huozhezaizhixingzhongfashengpianpo,daozhiwuduzhengceyitu,huokuada、huosuoxiaozhengcemudeerzaocheng“zhixingzouyang”。zhiyoujuece、zhixing、jianduzheisangezixitongxianghuyingxiang、xianghuzhiyue、xianghucujin,jiaoyuguanlicainengxingchengyigedongtai、bihedeliangxingxunhuanxitong。

jiaoyududaozuoweizhengfudeyixiangzhuanmengongzuo,xingshidudaozhineng,shizhengfushishijiaoyujianguan、tuijinguan、ban、pingfenlidejibenbaozhang。congyuyicengmiankan,dudaode“du”juyoujiandu、jiancha、pingjia、ducudeyisi,“dao”zejuyoujiaodao、zhidao、yindao、daoxiangdehanyi。

congjiazhicengmiankan,“jiandu”he “zhidao”shijiaoyududaodehexinsuozai,jiaoyududaojuyouqiangzhixing、jianduxing、zhuanyexingyuzhidaoxingsizhongjibentezheng。qizhong,jiandutixiandeshidudaodequanweixing、qiangzhixing,jisuowei “yifajiandu”“zhifajiandu”; zhidaoyilaideshidudaodezhuanyexing、helixing,jiaoyududaoruguozhijubeiquanweidejianduermeiyouzhuanyedezhidao,jiuwufatixianqigengshencengyiyundexianshijiazhi。

congshijiancengmiankan,duijiaoyuxingzhengbumende“duzheng”、duixuexiaode “duxue”heduijiaoyuxianzhuangde “pinggujiance”shibianzhengtongyide,“duzhiyuqian,jianzhiyuhou,daoguanqizhong”。duzhengpianzhongyujiandu,fuzhiyibiyaodezhidao;duxuezezhuyaoyizhidaoweizhu,jianduchuyuciyaodeweizhi; jiaoyupinggujiancezezhizaiweiduzheng、duxuetigongdashujudezhicheng。zheiyejuedinglejiaoyududaobuwanquanshichengjiexingdejieguochuli,bushilinshixingdeqingkuangducha,ershijishifaxianwenti、heliyunyongpinggujieguo,zhudongyuyiyindaobingchixudigaijingongzuo。

benwenjiangshulijinnianlaishijiegeguojiaoyududaogongzuodegongxingtezheng,fenxiwoguojiaoyududaozongtigaikuanghezhuyaopingjing,tantaoweilaibiangedongxiang。

一、国外教育督导制度的共性特征

zaiguowai,jiaoyududaojieguobeikanzuoxuexiaogongzuodefengxiangbiao。 jinjishinianyilai,fadaguojiawulunzaijiaoyududaoguannianshang,haishizaijiaoyududaoshijianshang,doufashenglezhongdadebianhua。bushaojiaoyududaoxinmoshiyingyunersheng,yixieguojiayezaishitugaibianjiaoyududaotizhi,jianliminzhu、gaoxiao、fuwuxingqiangdexinxingjiaoyududaomoshi。zheiliyijiaoyududaozhidujianlijiaozao、tixijiaowanshan、zuoyongjiaodadeguojiaweili,bijiaoshijiegeguojiaoyududaozhidudeyoushiyutese,fenxijiaoyududaogaige、fazhandelicheng,jianshiqibianqiandeguochengjiqushi,yiqiweijianquanwanshanzhongguotesedejiaoyududaozhidutigongjiejian。

1. 教育督导机构: 专设部门或设立一体化机构

congshijiegeguojiaoyududaojigoushezhideqingkuanglaikan,jiyouzhuanshexingjigou,yeyoufensanzhinengxingjigou。qizhong,zhuanshejiaoyududaojigougenjudulichengdubutongyoukefenweiwanquandulixingshezhihezhundulixingshezhi。yibaneryan,shijiegeguojiaoyududaojigoudeshezhileixingshougeziguojiajiaoyuxingzhengtizhidezhijieyingxiang。

yingguo、faguo、ribendengguoweileyouxiaodiduijiaoyushixingjianduheguanli,wangwangzhuanshejiaoyududaojigou,zheizhongjigoushezhileixingduidulikaizhanjiaoyududaogongzuoshiyoulide,quedianzaiyutongchouliandongbuzu,quefazhiduquanweiyuziyuanzhichi。deguodejiaoyuxingzhengguanyuantongshijianrenjiaoyududao,xingchengleyitihuadejiaoyududaojigou,zheizhongjigoushezhileixingbianyutongchouguanlihebumenxiediao,qiquedianshiyouweiyuxingzhengxuejibenyuanli,quanlilaiyuanbuqing,dudaodezizhuxingfahuiyouxian。meiguozeshizhuanshejiaoyududaojigouhefensanzhinengjiaoyududaojigoubingcun,zheifanyinglejiaoyuzizhuyuanzexiadedifanggeziweizheng。

第一,完全独立型教育督导机构设置。完全独立型设置是指完全独立于教育行政部门以外单独设置教育督导机构。英国、新西兰是其中最具代表性的国家。英国负责教育督导的教育标准局只对议会负责,属于非政府组阁机构序列的独立部门,每年直接向议会提交教育质量报告,其超脱于教育与就业部具有完全独立性。新西兰教育督导机构也是世界上为数不多的完全独立型机构,负责教育督导工作的教育检查办公室隶属于国会,完全独立于教育部之外。

第二,准独立型教育督导机构设置。准独立型机构设置是指附设于教育行政部门的教育督导机构,受政府与教育行政部门的双重领导。日本和法国是其中的典型代表。日本在文部省内独立设置督学局。法国在国民教育部内设相对独立的总督察局,内设国家教育总督学和教育行政总督学,分别负责教育教学和教育行政督导。即使采用准独立型机构设置的国家,其督导业务仍然独立于教育行政部门。这些国家的督导机构虽然在形式上隶属于教育行政部门,但教育督导的功能相对自主,不受教育行政部门干涉独立开展工作。

第三,分散职能型教育督导机构设置。分散职能型机构设置是指将教育督导职能分散,由教育行政部门相应科室承担。德国、加拿大、澳大利亚和美国部分州教育督导制度是其中的典型代表。在这些国家和地区,教育行政机构与教育督导机构一体化,教育督导本身就是教育行政职能的一部分。德国教育行政官员兼有行政与督导职责,日常的教育督导工作贯穿于教育行政工作之中,两者不存在明显的分野。美国的部分州也将教育督导职能分散于教育行政部门各科室中,履行教育行政和教育督导的双重任务。

zhengtilaikan,shijieshangzhiyoushaoshuguojiaxuanzezheizhongmoshi,yinweizheizhongfensanzhinengdejigoushezhisuirannengyouxiaobimianbumenjiandetuojie,danyouyujiaoyududaodezhongyaozhinengzhiyijiushiduizhengfuhejiaoyuxingzhengbumendelvzhiqingkuangjinxingducha,ruoyujiaoyuxingzhengjigouhebingshezhi,chengweiqixiashudemougebumen,zheizhongfushuxingjuedingleqibubianyujinxingqianglidudao。

2. 教育督导职能: 重行政监督或重业务指导

jiaoyududaodezhinengjuedingzhejiaoyududaodejibenneironghegongnengdingwei,yingxiangzhejiaoyududaofahuizuoyongdelingyuhefangxiang。duiyujiaoyududaodezhize,shijiegeguodeqingkuanggejutese,bujinxiangtong。zongdelaikan,geguozaoqijiaoyududaochangpianzhongyushichahejiandu,duoshiyizhongchunxingzhengxingde、jugaolinxiadedudao,qimudezhuyaozaiyujianchahekaohe,erfeizhidaoxuexiaogaijinjutigongzuo。

jinnianlai,suizhejiaoyududaozaijiaoyuguanlizhongdediweihezuoyongbuduandedaoqianghua,jiaoyududaodeguannianyezaibuduanshenhuahetuozhan。geguojiaoyududaodezhinengyoushicha、jiandugengduodizhuanbianweitigongzhidaohefuwu,bingzhujianzhuanbianweijianduxing、minglingxingdedudaofangshi,jianxingyizhongjuyouzhidaoxing、quangaoxing、jianyixingjibangzhujiaoshijiejuewentidedudaolinian。

第一,以视察为基本手段、监督为主要目的的 “行政监督型”。行政监督型一般是与中央集权型的教育行政体制相适应的。在中央集权型国家,教育属于国家事业,中央政府对教育负有直接责任,地方自主的思想居于次要位置。这种体制决定了教育督导主要是以检查、督察为主,其优点在于可有效保障地方办学遵循中央的教育方针、政策和法令。德国和法国是行政监督型体制的典型代表。德国在法律上明确规定,教育督导的三大基本职能是法律监督、公务监督和业务监督。法国教育督导的主要目的也是为教育管理服务,旨在通过教育督导对教育政策实施情况和教育体制运转情况进行评估和督导,强化中央政府对地方教育的宏观指导。

第二,以指导为主要手段、改进为基本宗旨的 “业务指导型”。业务指导型一般是与地方分权型的教育行政体制相适应的。在这些国家,地方教育自治的思想占据主导地位,教育主要由地方政府自主管理。这种体制最典型的国家是美国。美国的教育督导主要采取业务指导和教育服务的方式,如推广先进的教育教学经验、协助教师提升教学技能等。而且越是在基层组织,教育督导的指导职能与比重就越大,服务性、指导性就越明显。需要指出的是,日本虽然也属于中央集权体制国家,但由于在二战后受美国教育督导体制的影响,日本的教育督导制度实为指导或视导制度,以导为主、以督为辅,带有明显的重 “视”不重 “督”、重 “导”不重 “令”的特征。

第三,兼顾监督和指导两种职能的 “督、导并重型”。这种类型一般是与共同合作管理教育的体制相适应的,最具代表性的国家是英国。在英国,中央教育督导机构和地方教育督导机构属于两个独立的系统,各自负责教育督导的两个方面。中央教育督导机构侧重对全国教育工作进行督导,地方教育督导机构的任务则聚焦于帮助学校提升教学质量,两者各有分工,并不存在明显的职能交集。

第四,督政、督学、评估监测三位一体的 “督、监、导综合型”。近年来,强调督政、督学、评估监测相互融合的综合型督导成为引领各国教育督导发展的重要潮流之一,这种类型的出现主要与近年来各国基于权力下移的教育管理体制改革有关。俄罗斯通过许可证发放、教学评估和国家认证对办学条件、学生培养和办学水平进行督导和评估,督政、督学和评估监测三位一体,相互支撑。荷兰教育督导的重要任务之一是对学校教育质量进行评估和监测,通过有效地发挥督导的反馈和问责职能来推动学校改进教育工作。西班牙教育督导也在强化督政、督学功能的体制,日益开始关注对教育质量的评估和监测。

3. 教育督导方式: 普、特结合且灵活多样

zaijiaoyududaoguochengzhong,ruhexuanzelinghuo、helidedudaofangshiyiyouxiaozhangwoqingkuang、faxianwentibingyuyizhidaogaijin,shijiaoyududaogongzuodezhongxinsuozai。geguojiaoyududaochangjiandefangshibaokuodulidudaoyujitidudao、dingqidudaoyulinshidudao、quanmiandudaoyuzhuantidudaodeng。shangshududaofangshigeyoulibi,geguobingbucunzaiyigetongyidegudingmoshi。

第一,独立督导与集体督导相结合。独立督导是依据分工在自身职责范围内进行的督导,属于一种常规督导; 集体督导是根据任务需要由多名教育督导人员临时组织起来合作进行的督导,其中两人督导称为结伴督导,多人督导称为编组督导。法国的中央督学平时各有工作分工,一有需要则灵活编组,共同进行督导。西班牙教育督导的方式也非常灵活,常根据不同的任务需要临时编组。

第二,定期督导与临时督导相结合。采用定期督导的方式有利于建立教育督导秩序,时间也能得到保证,缺点是被督导单位容易事前准备,导致反映的情况不真实; 临时督导则无预定的日程表,往往是视具体情况进行选择性的随机督导。美国的教育督导多属于被动督导或临时督导,教育督导机构一般只有在接到请求或感到有必要时才会去督导。

第三,全面督导与专题督导相结合。全面督导是对督导单位进行的全方位督导,优点是便于了解全局性的情况,但由于实际条件的限制,全面督导往往难以得到保证,因而各国更多采用的是选择督导或更有针对性的专题督导。英国将教育督导工作分成一般性的普遍督导和针对性的专题督导,如按等级划分为初等、中等、高等教育督导,或按学科分成数学、英语、历史督导等。法国将教育督导任务分成两类,一类为行政督导,主要督导行政、财务、经费等事宜,另一类为教学督导,主要涉及教育教学相关事项。日本的教育督导则没有明确的分工,有些地方甚至是采取综合的方式进行。

4. 教育督导队伍: 准入严格但选拔方式各异

dudaorenyuanshijiaoyududaogongzuodejutizuzhizheheshishizhe,dudaorenyuanshuipingdegaodizhijieyingxiangzhejiaoyududaodezhiliangheshuiping。dafanjiaoyududaochenggongdeguojia,douyongyouyizhijingxihua、zhuanmenhua、zhiyehuadejiaoyududaoduiwu。ruyingguoguojiajiaoyubiaozhunjuyouhuangjiaduxue 400 yuren,quanguoyou 3000 yumingdulidudao; helangongyoujiaoyududaorenyuan 442 ming,qizhong 65%weiduxue,15%weifenxirenyuan,20%weifuzhurenyuan; xibanyaanyuxuesheng 1 ∶ 3000 debilipeibeiduxue,meiweiduxuefuze14—15suoxuexiao。zheixieguojiagaoduzhongshijiaoyududaorenyuandexuanbarenyong,beipinyongdedudaorenyuandouyingmanzuyangederenzhibiaozhun,jubeixiangdangdexuelihezili,bingyongyoufengfudeguanlihejiaoxuejingyan,renzhiqianhejiuzhihouhaiyaojieshouzhangshijiandezhiyepeixun。

第一,在准入资格上,各国对教育督导人员的基本素质都有严格的要求。美国要求教育督导人员具有博士学位,有相应的教师资格证书并任教 3 年以上; 英国皇家督学须具有 10 年以上的教龄,不仅精通一门专业,还应是博识多通的多面手; 法国规定大区督学应具有博士学位,或者具有中学最高教师资格,且在入职前必须到国家督学和教育领导培训中心接受两年的上岗培训;

xibanyaduxuebixuzaigongwuyuanduiwuzhongxuanpin,yaoqiuzhishaojuyou 6 nianjiaoxuejingyan,qiezaishiyongqineibeijiandingwei “chengzhi” fangkepinren。chulejiaoyududaorenyuandejibensuzhijiegou,geguoduijiaoyududaorenyuandeqitatezhiyegeyouyaoqiu。yingguoheribenbijiaoqiangdiaojiaoyududaorenyuandexuekezhuanzhang;faguobijiaoqiangdiaojiaoyududaorenyuanxueli、jingliheshengwangdengfangmiandetiaojian; meiguochuduijiaoyududaorenyuandelilunjichu、zhuanyenengliyaoqiuwai,haishifenqiangdiaodudaoshixihezhiyepeixundejingli。

第二,在选拔方式上,各国选拔教育督导人员的方式不一。一般包括四种:一是委任制,法国的教育督导往往采用带有指定性质的提名形式; 二是推荐制,采用推荐制方式的包括英国的皇家督学、美国的地方督学、日本的京都府督导等;三是考试制,日本的某些县选拔教育督导时采用这种方式;四是招聘制,英国在选聘州督学时,会在全国范围进行公开招聘,挑选合格教育督导人员。

xuyaozhichudeshi,shangshuwulunnaguozaishijicaozuozhongdoushibocaizhongzhang,zongheyunyonggezhongkaohexingshi,erfeigulidishiyongyizhongfangshi。faguosuiranshixingweirenzhi,danzaiweirenqianyeyouyigetuijian、xuanbadeguocheng; yingguozhouduxueshixingzhaopinzhi,qizhongjiubaohanlekaoshihexuanbadechengfen;meiguozhouduxuecaiyongtuijianzhi,danbeituijianrenyixutongguokaoshihemianshihuanjie。

二、我国教育督导发展的总体概况和主要瓶颈

woguodejiaoyududaozhidushizaijiejianguowaijiaoyududaozhidujichushang,yujindaixuexiaojiaoyuzhidutongshichanshengbingfazhanqilaide。woguojindaiyiyishangdejiaoyushidaoshiyuqingchaomonian,qingzhengfushezhixuebu,canzhuoribenwenbushengguanzhishelishixueguan。xinhaigeminghou,xuebugaiweijiaoyubu,shixuerengyanyongqingmojiuzhi。

“dudao”yicizaiwoguodezhengshishiyongshiyu1926nian,minguozhengfujiaoyubuxianhouyu 1929 nian、1931 nianbanbu 《duxueguicheng》 《duxuebanshixize》,difangyexiangjichutaisheng、xianliangjide 《duxueguicheng》 he 《banshixize》。zhonghuarenmingongheguochenglihou,jiaoyududaogongzuobeitishangzhongyaoricheng,shidaosishijiaoyubuzuichushelideyitingwusizhiyi。cihou,gesheng ( shi、zizhiqu) yexiangjijianlilejiaoyududaojigou,zhidinglejiaoyududaotiaoli。

cong1958niankaishi,jiaoyududaogongzuozhujianxueruo,dudaoyewuyebeiqitayewubumensuotidai。1984nian,guowuyuanpizhunjiaoyubusheshidaoshi。1986nian,jingguowuyuanpizhun,jiaoyubushidaoshigengmingweiguojiajiaoweidudaosi,biaozhizhewoguojiaoyududaozhidudezhengshihuifu。2010nian,《jiaoyuguihuagangyao》duijiaoyududaojigoudeshelitichuzhuanmenyaoqiu,cihoudeguojiajiaoyududaoweiyuanhuijiushijucijianliqilaide。2012nian,guowuyuanbanbu《jiaoyududaotiaoli》,gaitiaolijiangjiaoyududaozhidudefalvyijutishengzhigenggaocengci。2014nian,guojiajiaoyududaoweiyuanhuiyinfa《shenhuajiaoyududaogaigezhuanbianjiaoyuguanlifangshideyijian》,kaishizhengshizheshougoujianduzheng、duxue、pinggujiancesanweiyitidexiandaihuajiaoyududaotixi。

zongtieryan,zi 1986 nianwoguojiaoyududaozhiduhuifuzhongjianyilai,jiaoyududaozaicujinhebaozhang “liangji” mubiaodeshixian、tuijinyiwujiaoyujunhengfazhan、gaishanpinkundiquboruoxuexiaotiaojian、jiaqiangxiaoyuanxiaoshexiaocheanquanjianguandengguochengzhong,fahuilebuketidaideguanjianxingzuoyong。yucitongshi,zuoweiyigejubanzheshijiezuidaguimojiaoyudefazhanzhongguojia,woguojiaoyulingyuyehaicunzaizhuruxueqianjiaoyu “ruyuannan”wenti、yiwujiaoyu “zexiao” “jianfu”wenti、jiaoyuziyuanjunhengpeizhiwentiyijixiaoyuanxiaoshexiaocheanquanwentidengyixiliejiaoyududaonandianwenti。zheipoqiexuyaoyaboappjiujiaoyududaodejigou、zhineng、fangshi、duiwudengfangmianjinyibugaigechuangxin,yigenghaodishiyingwoguojiaoyufazhandexinxingshi、xinqingkuang、xinyaoqiu。

1. 教育督导基层组织的相对独立设置改革有待推进

jiaoyududaojigouyaozhenzhengfahuizuoyong,bixubaochiyidingdedulixing,zheishiyoujiaoyududaodexingzhisuojuedingde。buguo,jiujingshibaochixiangduiduli,fushedanbufushuyujiaoyuxingzhengbumen?haishituidongwanquanduli,yongyoudulideren、cai、wuquan?congguojijingyankan,duoshuguojiaxuanzelejiaoyududaojigoudexiangduidulishezhi,zheishigeguojiaoyududaogaigedezhuliuqushi,congmouzhongyiyishangyekeyishuoshijiaoyududaodejibenguilvshiran。

duiyududaojigoushezhi,guoneizhuliudeguandianyeshiqiangdiaoyaobaochijiaoyududaojigoudexiangduidulixing,yijinkenengdifahuiqijianduzhineng。jiezhi2016nian,woguoguojiaheshengjijiaoyududaojigoudexiangduidulishezhigaigeyijingjibenwancheng。2012nianyiqian,guojiajiaoyududaotuanzhijielishuyujiaoyubu,cihougaizhichengxiangduidulide、youguowuyuanzhijielingdaodeguojiajiaoyududaoweiyuanhui。2012nian,quanguo 31 gesheng( shi、zizhiqu) yexiangjichenglilerenminzhengfujiaoyududaoweiyuanhui,goujianledifangjiaoyududaojigoudulishezhigaigedezhutikuangjia。danshi,zaijicengdeshi、xianliangjizhengfubumen,jiaoyududaojigoudexiangduidulishezhigaigehaimeiyouwanquangenjin,zheixiejicengjiaoyududaozuzhidexiangduidulishezhigaigeyoudaijixutuijin。

dangqian,woguoshi、xianliangjijiaoyududaojigoudeshezhileixingzhuyaoyouduli、xiangduidulihejiaoyubumenneibushezhisanzhongmoshi,qizhongdisanzhongqingkuangbuzaishaoshu。zheixiejiaoyududaojicengzuzhicongfalvyiyishangjiangshirenminzhengfuguanxiaxiadedulijigou,zaixingzhenglishushangshourenminzhengfuyujiaoyuxingzhengbumendeshuangzhonglingdao,ershizhishang,jiaoyududaojicengzuzhiduocaiyongguakaodefangshifushezaitongjijiaoyuxingzhengbumen,zhuyaorenwushidaibiaojiaoyuxingzhengbumenshixingjiandu、pingguhezhidao。

caiyongxingzhenghedudaobumen“liangkuaipaizi、yitaobanzi”deshezhi,yuanbenshiqiwangjinengwanchengduzhengdegongneng,younengshixianduxuedemude。danzaixianshizhong,zheizhongjigoushezhifangshidailailehenduokunjing,zuizhuyaodekunjingzaiyujiaoyududaoshoudaojiaoyuxingzhengbumendegezhongyueshu ( ruren、cai、wu、kaohe、jiangchengdeng) ,daozhijiaoyududaogongzuodulixingbugou、zhutixingbuqiang、zhixinglipianruo。tongshi,zuoweiyizhongjiaoyuxingzhengxitongneidejiandu,fensanzhinengxingjiaoyududaojigousuinengshixiandujiaoheduxuedegongneng,quewufayouxiaowanchengduzhengderenwu,nanyijiandubenjiqitabumen。

congzheigeyiyishangkan,woguojicengjiaoyududaojigoujixugenjinguojiaheshengjijiaoyududaojigoudexiangduidulishezhigaige,zouchu “lishujiaoyudujiaoyu”“yifujiaoyupingjiaoyu”dekunjing,congguoquguakaojiaoyuxingzhengbumendemoshizhongbolichulai,xingchengyitaoxiangduidulideyunzuojizhihegongzuomoshi。

2. 教育督导职能的评估、监测、指导作用有待强化

zhengtilaikan,xiandaijiaoyududaodehexinneirongzhuyaosheji “duzheng”“dujiao”“duxue”he “pinggujiance”sigeweidu。yishiduzheng,jijianduxiajizhengfulvxingjiaoyuzhizedeqingkuang; ershidujiao,jijianchajiaoyuxingzhengbumenluoshijiaoyufangzhenzhengcedeqingkuang; sanshiduxue,jijianduhezhidaoxuexiaobanxue、guanli、jiaoxuedengxingwei; sishipinggujiance,jipinggujiancexueshengdexueyeshuiping、qunzhongdejiaoyumanyidudengqingkuang。

congshangshusigeweidukan,woguozaoqidejiaoyududaocunzai “zhongjianduqingzhidao” “zhongyanshouqingjiance” deqingxiang,yanshou、jianchayizhizhanjujiaoyududaogongzuodezhutineirong。yifangmian,wulunshituijin“liangji”mubiaoshixian、quebaosuzhijiaoyudequanmiantuixing,haishijiaoyubiaozhundedachengdujianshi、xuexiaobanxueguifanyubanxuebiaozhunjiancha、kechenggaigehejiaoyujiaoxueguanli,“yidudaidao” dexianxiangshiyoufasheng。youyuyanshou、jianchachengweijiaoyududaodezhutineirong,daozhijiaoyududaobumenchangchangbeiwujieweishi “yanshouzu”he “jianchatuan”。lingyifangmian,yixieyuanbenyingyoujiaoyuxingzhengbumenfuzedexuexiaoanquanjiancha、guifanxuexiaobanxuexingwei、jinzhijiejiaribukedengchangguixinggongzuo,doujiaojijiaoyududaobumen

“yidudaiguan”,zaijubulingyuhunxiaolezhixinghejianduhuanjie,zhiyuelejiaoyududaogongnengdefahui。zheizhongyijianduweizhudejiaoyududaozaiyidinglishishiqifuhewoguodejiaoyushiji,dansuizhejiaoyugonggongfuwuzhinengdezhuanbian,yijixuexiaoduitishengjiaoyuzhiliangyaoqiudebuduanzengqiang,shehuidexinxingshi、jiaoyudexinqingkuangyeduidudaozhinengtichulexindeyaoqiu。

jiuguojijiaoyududaojingyanyijiwoguojiaoyududaozhidufazhandezouxiangkan,suiranzaijiaoyufazhandechuqijieduanbixujiaqiangjiaoyududaodejiandu、yanshouzhineng,danzaijiaoyufazhandaoyidingchengdu、jiaoyuzhengcededaopubiandezunshouhezhixingshi,jiaoyududaodepinggu、jiancehezhidaozhinengzexuyaoyinqizhongshi。congzheigeyiyishangkan,woguodejiaoyududaoxuyaozaizhiliangkongzhidedudaoguanjichushangdiejiazhuanyezhidaodefuwuguan,zaijianguchuantongduzheng、dujiao、duxuezhinengdetongshi,shidangjiadapinggu、jiancehezhidaodegongneng。jinnianlai,jiaoyududaodepinggu、jiancehezhidaozhinengbeishouzhongshi,jiuyugeguojiyuquanlixiayidejiaoyuguanlitizhigaigeyouguan。

3. 教育督导方式的发展性、多样性、开放性有待拓展

dudaoshiyigexiangduifuzadexitong,jiaoyududaokeyishizonghede、zhengtide,yekeyishidanxiangde、jubude; keyishizhongjiexingde,yekeyishifazhanxing、xingchengxingde。zaijiaoyududaofazhanxiangduijiaochengshudeguojia,junshifenzhuzhongyunyongduozhongdudaofangshitigaodudaochengxiao。

jinnianlai,woguozhubugoujianlechangtaihuadejiaoyududaojizhihexuexiaozerenduxueguapaidudaozhidu,jiaoyududaobumenzhenduijiaoyucaizhengtouruwenti、jiaoshidaiyuluoshiwenti、shideshifengjianshewenti、xiaoyuanxiaoshexiaocheanquanwenti、xiaoyuanqilingzhiliwentidengjiaoyuzhongdian、nandianheredianwentizuzhikaizhanlezhuanxiangdudao,kewei “nalichuxianjiaoyuwenti,nalijiuyoujiaoyududao”。zheixiechangtaixinghuozhuanmenxingdejiaoyududaoyouxiaotuidonglejiaoyugongpingdeluoshihejiaoyuzhiliangdetisheng。yucitongshi,woguojiaoyududaofangshirengcunzaijinyibuyouhuadekongjian,jiaoyududaodeshouduanhefangfarengxujixujiayituozhan,jiaoyududaodefazhanxing、duoyangxing、kaifangxingyehaiyoudaitisheng。

dangqianwoguodejiaoyududaojiaozhongshizhongjiexingpinggu,shijianzhongdaduoguanzhuduijiaoyuxianzhuangdepinggu,bingduoyukaohe、jiangchengguagou,daozhijiaoyududaodefazhanxing、xingchengxinggongnengtixiandebugou。tongshi,jiaoyududaozhibiaobugoukexuexizhi,jiaoyududaodeshouduanxiangduidanyi。zaijiaoyududaoguochengzhongcunzaibufencengci、bufenleibie、buanxingzhi,yong“yibachi”quhengliangdexianxiang,zhenduibutongfazhanjieduan、butongdiqu、butongxuexiaodeshiyingxingpinggubugou,jiashangpianzhongzhuguanpingpan、queshaoshujuzhicheng,zaiyidingchengdushangzhiyueledudaodeyouxiaoxinghejieguodequanweidu。

ciwai,jiaoyududaoguochenghaibugoukaifang,woguojiaoyududaoduojuxianyuzhuketidanweineibu,butaizhongshishehuihejiazhangdecanyu,quefahengxianggoutong。shijishang,danpingdanyidedudaoliliangnanyizhangqiyouxiaoditishengdudaozhiliang,jiaoyududaolianmengdejianlijijiaoyududaoziyuandegongxiangduiyujiaoyududaogongzuodekaizhanhenyouhaochu,weilaikechangshijiezhujiaoyududaoliliangdeshizhixinghezuoyijixiaojihuoquyulianhe,shixianjiaoyududaodeneihanshenhuahewaibuyanshen。

4. 教育督导队伍的结构、专业性和晋升通道有待优化

jiansheyizhishuliangzugou、jiegouheli、jingyanfengfu、nengchongfenshiyingxiandaijiaoyududaogongzuodegaoshuipingduiwu,shibaozhangjiaoyududaogongzuoshunlikaizhandeguanjiansuozai。woguozihuifujiaoyududaozhiduyilai,jiaoyududaoduiwuxunsukuoda,zhengtisuzhibuduantigao。jiezhi 2017nian,woguodezerenduxue、guapaidudaoyijingfugaiquanguojin30wansuozhongxiaoxuexiao,13.8wanmingguojia、sheng、shi、xiansijizhuanjianzhidudaorenyuanyouxiaobaozhanglejiaoyuzhengcedeluoshihexuexiaodeguifanbanxue,zaicujinhebaozhang“liangji”mubiaodeshixian、tuijinsuzhijiaoyudeshishiguochengzhongfahuilezhongyaozuoyong。

dansuizhejiaoyugaigejinrushenshuiqu,xindejiaoyuxingshiduidudaoduiwutichulexindeyaoqiu。woguojiaoyududaoduiwudezhuanyehuachengdurengxuyaojixutigao,youqizaishi、xianliangji,jiaoyududaoduiwudejingxihua、zhuanmenhua、zhiyehuashuipingjiaodi,wentihaibijiaotuchu。

yifangmian,jiaoyududaoduiwuderenyuanjiegou、xuelijiegou、zhuanyejiegouhenianlingjiegoubugouheli。yixiejicengzhengfuduijiaoyududaogongzuodezhuanyexingrenshibugou,rengcunzaibajiaoyududaojigoudangzuo “fushukeshi”he “yanglaojigou”,huozhebaquedingjiaoyududaorenxuanzuoweiganbuanzhidiaojiejizhidengjiusiwei、jiuxiguan,daozhijiaoyududaoduiwuchuxianxingzhenghua、lingdaogenghuanpinfan、renyuanlaolinghuadengyixiliewenti。

lingyifangmian,jiaoyududaozhunruzhiduhaibugouyange,dudaozigehuodechengxuyoudaiwanshan。zheizhuyaobiaoxianzaiduibufenjicengjiaoyududaorenyuandezhunrubaguanqueshaozugoudezhuanyemenjian,shenzhiyouyibufenjiaoyududaorenyuanshi“xianshanggang,houchizheng”,xianfenpeigongzuoranhouzaicanjiaduanqipeixunhuodezigezheng。zheixiejiaoyududaorenyuanzhuanyexingbuzu,zaishijianzhongwangwangyijingyanxingdudaojuduo,zaixingzhengdudaofangmiandeli,zaiduxuezhidaofangmianjiaoruo,wufazhenzhengfahuijiaoyududaodezhidaohefuwuzuoyong。

ciwai,woguojiaoyududaofazhanhaicunzaizhedudaorenyuanzhichengjinshengtongdaobuchang、zhuanyehuafazhanshouxiandewenti。jiaoyududaoshiyimenjingxihua、gaomenjiandezhuanmenzhiye,weilaijixukexueshejijiaoyududaorenyuandeshangshengtongdao,pojiedudaorenyuanzhichengpingshenhezhijijinshengbuchang、zhuanyehuafazhanshouxiandengfangmiandepingjing,xiyinyouxiurencaizhongshencongshijiaoyududaogongzuo。

三、我国教育督导的未来变革动向

congxinshidaijiaoyududaodebenzhi、guowaijiaoyududaodefazhanqushiyijiwoguojiaoyududaodeshijilaikan,yaozhenzhengfahuidudaozuoyong,xuyaoshixianjiaoyududaogeng“youwei”“youwei”“youwei”he“youwei”。woguodejiaoyududaokechangshicongzheisigefangmiandegaigeweiqierukou,jiakuaituijinjiaoyududaofazhandedulihua、kexuehua、duoyuanhuahezhuanyehua。

1. 教育督导机构更 “有位”,保障独立性和重要地位

jiaoyududaojigouyaozhenzhengfahuizuoyong,jiuyinggaibaochiyidingdedulixing,zheishiyoujiaoyududaodexingzhisuojuedingde。zaijingjilingyu,woguode “zhengjianhui” “yinjianhui” he “baojianhui”zhisuoyinengyouxiaofahuizuoyong,yigezhongyaoyuanyinjiuzaiyuqijigoushezhidedulixing。zheixiejigouruguorenglishuyuyangxing,kenengqizuoyongjiubuhuixiangxianzaizheiyangmingxian。

congwoguoshijichufa,muqianyaoshezhiwanquandulidejiaoyududaojigoushangbujubeichongfendetiaojian,gengkexingdexuanzeshibaochijiaoyududaojigoudexiangduidulixing。yuanyinzhuyaoyousan,yishicongdudaodegongnengkan,jiaoyududaojigouruoyuxingzhengbumenwanquantuoli、geziweizheng,jiuhuiquefayewulingdaoyuquanlizhicheng,yebuliyujiaoyududaojigouzailvzhiguochengzhonghuodekekaodezhiduquanweiheziyuanzhichi; ershicongwoguoguoqingkan,baochijiaoyududaojigoudexiangduidulishezhizaizhongyangheshengjicengmianyijingfazhandebijiaochengshu,youjiaoweichongfendexianshijichu; sanshicongguojijingyankan,geguojinnianlaifenfenxuanzejiaoyududaojigoudexiangduidulishezhi,congmouzhongchengdushangyefanyinglejiaoyududaodejibenguilvhefazhanqushi。

2012nian,guowuyuanzhengshisheliguojiajiaoyududaoweiyuanhui,zheishiduixuduodifangjinxingshidiandechongfenkendingherentong。zhongyangcengmianjiaoyududaojigoudezhundulixingshezhi,yetuidonglegedijiaoyududaojigoudetansuoyuchuangxin。ruquanguogesheng( shi、zizhiqu) zaicihouxiangjichenglirenminzhengfujiaoyududaoweiyuanhui; shanghaishituichudifangzhengfupaichujigoumoshi,chenglilexiangduidulidejiaoyududaoshiwuzhongxin; jiangsu、zhejiang、guangdongdengwushengshishezhidejiaoyupingguyuanzeshizaixianxingjiaoyududaojigoukuangjiaxiachenglizhongjiejigoudeyizhongchangshi。

congzheigeyiyishangkan,chenglishi、xianliangjidejiaoyududaoweiyuanhuiyijingbeitishangyishiricheng。dulixingdudaodegaige,yetixianzaiyouxiaoxiyinshehuizuzhicanyujiaoyududaoshang。tongguoyinruyouzizhidedisanfangzuzhi,jiaoyududaojigoukejiangzishenchengdandebufenzhinengfenlijishehuizuzhi,yigoumaifuwudefangshifahuidisanfangjigoudezhuanyeyoushi,bazijicongbufenjutixingdeshiwuzhongjiefangchulai。

dangran,yinrushehuizuzhicanyujiaoyududao,bingbuyiweizhebazhengfudejiaoyududaozhineng“dabao”jishehuizuzhi。zuoweiguojiaquanlidetixian,jiaoyududaobuyisuibianzhuanyizerenzhuti,yebuyiyoufeizhuanyejigoujinruxuexiaodudao、jiancehepinggu。nenggouxiangshehuifenlidezhinengzhuyaoshijiaoyududaozhongdeyibufengaozhuanyexing、gaojishuxingdezhineng ( ruxueyeshujujiance、jiaoyumanyidudiaochadeng) ,erbuyibaokuoneixieqiangjianduxingyuqiangzhixingdezhineng ( ruxingzhengjiandu、jiaoxuezhidaodeng) 。

2. 教育督导职能更 “有味”,完善三位一体的教育督导体系

congjiaoyududaozishenfazhandelichenglaikan,zaidudaofazhandechujijieduan,renmenwangwangzhongshijianduzhineng,danshisuizhejiaoyufazhanshuipingdetishengyijixuexiaoduitigaojiaoyuzhiliangxuqiudebuduanzengqiang,ruguorengjiuanzhaojiaoyududaodejiulinian、jiusilulaizhidaojiaoyududaoguochengzhongchuxiandexinwenti、xinqingkuang,xianranbuliyuxinshiqijiaoyududaozhengtizhiliangdetisheng。duiwoguoeryan,jiaoyuxingshidefazhanbianhuaxuyaojiaoyududaozhinengdejishigenjinhezhuanhuan,wanshanduzheng、duxue、pinggujiancesanweiyitidexiandaihuajiaoyududaotixi。

yishizaijianchi“duzhengyuduxuebingzhong、jianduyuzhidaobingzhong”detongshi,gengjiazhongshipinggujiancedezuoyong。ruguojiaoyududaozhishijiandu、jianchajiaoyugongzuo,jiuhuiyujiaoyuxingzhengbumendebufenduchazhinengzhongfu。jiaoyududaoxuyaolizuyu “du、jian、dao” jiehe,tongguozhenghezhuanyejigou、zhuanyezuzhihezhuanyequanweideliliang,jishifaxianjiaoyuwenti,heliyunyongpinggujieguo,zhujianxingchengyizhongnenggoujijiyuyiyindaobingchixugaijingongzuodezhinengdingwei。

ershizaijianchi “jianduhezhidaobingzhong、pingguhefuwubingzhong”detongshi,gengjiazhongshizhidaohefuwudezuoyong。congjiaoyududaozishenfazhandeluojieryan,jiaoyududaobushijiaoyuguanlidezhongduanhuanjie,tashigaijindekaishi。jiaoyududaodezhongyaomudezhiyizaiyutongguodudaochuandixinxi、jiaoliujingyan,zhaodaowentibingtichuhelihuajianyi。congzheigejiaodukan,jiaoyududaoyingdanhuadudaodegongjuxing,qianghuadudaodefazhanxing,cong “mingling” gengduozhuanxiang “fuwu”,cong “lingdao” gengduozhuanxiang“duihua”。zheizhongxindejiaoyududaolinianyouqizhongshiyixuexiaofazhanweihexin,bingyixueshengdefazhanweimude。zheiyeshigeguojiaoyududaogongtongdefazhanqushi,bingchengrijianjiaqiangzhishi。

jutieryan,jianquansanweiyitidexiandaihuajiaoyududaotixikekaolvcongwanshansangefangmiandegongzuoweitupokou。yishizaiduzhengfangmian,jixuwanshanduidifangzhengfulvxingjiaoyufangzhenzhengceqingkuang、zhengfucaizhengjiaoyutouruqingkuangdengrichanggongzuodezonghedudao,bingjiuyiwujiaoyujunhengfazhan、xiangcunjiaoshidaiyubaozhangdengyixiezhongdiangongzuoqianghuazhuanxiangdudao。tongshi,weiletigaoduzhenggongzuodequanweixing,kekaolvzaifalvtiaowenzhongfuyujiaoyududaobufenzhifachuzhiquanhexingzhengchufaquan,lirujiaoyujiancepingjiadeguojiabiaozhunzhidingquan、duijiaoyuxingzhengzhifadezuizhongpingpanquanheweifajiuzhengquan、jinjiqingkuangxiacaiquyingduicuoshiquanyijiduiweifazerenrendedanhequandeng。

ershizaiduxuefangmian,zhenduixueqianjiaoyuziyuanbuzu、yiwujiaoyu“zexiao” “jianfu”、zhiyejiaoyuchanxuehezuo、gaodengjiaoyubanxuezizhuquan、minbanjiaoyutesefazhandengyixiliejiaoyuzhongdianwentikaizhandingqidudao,jishizhenduixueshengshiwuzhongdu、xiaoyuancaitashijian、xiaocheanquanshigudengzhongdatufashijianyijishideshifengwenti、xiaoyuanqilinganjian、xueshubuduanshijiandengshehuigaoduguanzhudezhongdayuqingwentikaizhanlinshidudao。

sanshizaipinggujiancefangmian,jixugaigechuantongdudaopingjiazhineng,chuangxinjiancefangshifangfa,gulihezhichiyouzizhidedisanfangzhuanyezuzhicanyupinggujiance,zhubuxingchengduozhongzuhexingdequanfangwei、quanguocheng、duoshijiaopinggujiancetixi。

3. 教育督导方式更 “有为”,增强方式和手段的实效性

tigaojiaoyududaodexiaolvyoulaiyujiaoyududaofangshidediaozheng。yigeburonghuibideshishishi,ruheyouxiaolvxingjiaoyududaozhineng? yishenmebiaozhun、shenmefangshi、shenmechengxulai “du”lai “dao”? jiaoyududaogongzuoshiyigefuzahegaoquanbianxingdexitong,zhiyoubuduantishengzishendudaofangshideduoyangxing、linghuoxing、shiqiexingheyouxiaoxing,cainengshixiandudaogongzuodegaozhilianghegaoxiaolv。

yishijiaoyududaoxingshiyinggengjiatiejinxuexiao、tiejinketang、tiejinshisheng。congjiaoyududaoshuangfangdeguanxilaikan,tiejinxuexiao、tiejinketang、tiejinshishengyiweizhedudaoshuangfangdegongshenggongzhangheyitihua。zaizheiyangyizhongguanxizhuanbiandejichushang,jiaoyududaorenyuanbuzaizhishiwaizaiyududaoduixiangdeyijizhiren,erchengwei“zijiren”; yebuzaishigaogaozaishangdeguankongshi、kaoheshiducha,erzhuanbianwei “juneiren”dehezuo、fuwu,yijizhidaoyugaijin。

ershijiaoyududaoshouduanyinggengjiazouxianghezuo、zouxiangduoyuan、zouxianglinghuo。jiyaotongguodingqidudao、richangdudaojianlidudaochanggui,youyaocaiquwuyudingrichengbiaodelinshidudaoyifangzhiqingkuangshizhen; jiyaotongguoquanmiandudao、jitidudaozhangwojiaoyudezhengtiqingkuang,youyaotongguoxuanzedudao、zhuantidudaojiangwentideyanjiuyinxiangshenru。

sanshijiaoyududaofangshiyingzaiyiwangzhuzhongzhongjiexingpinggudejichushang,jiaqiangduijiaoyugaigeyufazhandexingchengxingpinggu。jiyaoguanzhubeidudaoduixiangdexianshibiaoxian,yeyingzhuyiqilishixingchengguochenghefazhanqushi; jiyaojiaohaodifanyingjiaoyufazhandezhuangkuang,youyinggenghaodimingquejiaoyufazhandefangxiang; jiyaoguanzhumeiwanchengshenme,gengyingguanzhuwanchengleshenme。

woguojiaoyududaoxuyaozhenduibutongquyu、butongxuexiao、butongjieduandedudaoduixiang,congbutongdeshijiqingkuangchufashejigengduoyuandepingguzhibiaohepingjiafangshi,liruzheyanyufazhihua、zhiduhuadejichuxingzhibiao,zheyanyuminzhuhua、kexuehuadeguifanxingzhibiao,zheyanyubiangexing、chuangxinxingdefazhanxingzhibiaodeng。tongguobuduanwanshanxingchengxingpingguhezhuanyexingyindao,yidudaocugaishan、yidudaocujianshe、yidudaocufazhan。

dangqian,yishijixujianquanjiaoyududaochengxu,xingchengjiaoyududaogongzuodebihuan。yichangguidudaoweijichu,yizhuanxiangdudaoweizhongdian,yipinggujiancexinxiweizhicheng,jianquanzichaziping、shididudao、pinggujiance、fankuizhenggai、xinxifabu、disanfangjujianpingjiadengdudaohuanjie,wanshanjieguogonggaohexianqizhenggai、pinggujianceyufucha、yuetanjijiangchengwenzedengdudaochengdu,xingchengdifangzicha、guojiachoucha、bumenliandong、jiaochahuchayoujijiehededudaotixi,quebaodudaogongzuozhangqiyouxiao,buliuyuxingshi。

ershiyouhuajiaoyududaogongju,jiang “hulianwang+”、dashujuchulidengxinxijishuyunyongdaojiaoyududaogongzuozhonglai。jixutuidongjiaoyududaoshujucaijiwangluohua、qingkuangfenxizhinenghua、genzongjiancejishihua、juecezhichengkexuehua,pochuhexiaojieshuzihonggou、xinxigudaodengxinxibilei,youxiaojiejuechuantongjiaoyududaofangshizairenli、caili、shijian、kongjianshangdejuxian,zaidudaoneirongshangshixianquanmianjiankonghezhongdiandudaoxiangjiehe,zaidudaofangshishangshixianshididudaohewangshangdudaoxiangjiehe,zaidudaoshijianshangshixianquanchenggenzonghedingqijianchaxiangjiehe,zhenzhengrangjiaoyujiandugengyouli、jiaoyuzhidaogengyouxiao。

4. 教育督导队伍更 “有威”,提升督导人员的专业权威与工作威信

wulunshizhengfududaojigou,haishishehuixingzhidepinggujigou,zhuanyexingdoushiqilaiyishengcundejichu。jiaoyududaozuoweiyixianggaomenjianhegaojishuxingdegongzuo,jiaoyududaorenyuanduijiaoyuxianzhuanghewentidepanduanbukenengwanquanshishulianghuade,zaimouxiedingxingpingjiadecengmianxuyaotebieyilaijiaoyududaorenyuandezhuanyezhishiherichangjingyan。

congzheigeyiyishangkan,yaoyouxiaofahuijiaoyududaodegongneng,jiuxuyaobuduantishengjiaoyududaoduiwudejingxihua、zhuanmenhua、zhiyehuashuiping。woguoxuyaojixutuidongjiaoyududaoduiwudejingxihua、zhuanmenhua、zhiyehuafazhan,tongguojianquanhewanshanjiaoyududaorenyuanderenyong、xuanba、peixunzhidu,jianliqiyizhishuliangzugou、jiegouheli、suzhiquanmian、jingyanfengfu、nengchongfenshiyingxiandaijiaoyududaogongzuodeduiwu,shijiaoyududaochengweiyimenbuketidaidegaozhunru、gaojishuxingzhiye。

yishijixujianquanjiaoyududaorenyuandexuanbaherenyongtiaojian,wanshanjiaoyududaorenyuandezhunruheguanlizhidu。jianyikecanzhaojianzhushi、yishi、lvshidengxingyezigerenzhengbanfa,congzhiyexingdejiaoduguifanjiaoyududaorenyuancongyezige,shixingyangezhunru、zeyoupinren、qianghuakaohe、zhuceguanli “sitongyi”,zhenzhengbaneixiereaijiaoyududao、jubeizhuanyesuyang、nengdushandaoderenlinxuan、chongshidaojiaoyududaoduiwuzhonglai。

ershituijinjiaoyududaodezhuanmenhua、jingxihuafazhan。suizhejiaoyududaoxingshidefazhan,weilaidejiaoyududaorenyuanjiangriyiquyufenhua、zhuanmenhuahejingxihua,ruxihuaweijiaoxuedudao、kechengdudao,huoqufenweixiaoxuedudao、zhongxuedudaodeng,erbushijingyanshicanyude、shenmedouhuideyibandudao。

sanshichuangxinjiaoyududaopeixunzhidu。wanshanheyouhuajiaoyududaopeixuntixi,chuangxinjiaoyududaopeixunxingshi,yindaojiaoyududaorenyuanzhihouchengzhang。jiaoyududaorenyuanliyingchengweiyigexueduanheyigelingyudezhuanjia,bingtongguozhenduixingde、zhuanyehuadezhihoupeixun,buduantishengheyouhuazishendeyewuzhishi、dudaojinengheyanjieshiye。

sishidapochuantongjiaoyududaopeixundefengbixing。weilaikekaolvdajianquyujiaoyududaoxiezuodehuzhupingtaiyicujinquyujianziyuangongxiangyujingyanjiaoliu,tongshituidongqingnianjiaoyududaorenyuandaojicengxuexiaoguazhiduanlian、shidipeiyang,zaishijian、jiaoliuhehudongzhongbuduanduanlianzishendenengli。wushituozhanjiaoyududaorenyuandezhiyefazhankongjian。yaodatongjiaoyududaorenyuandezhijihezhichengjinshengtongdao,shijiaoyududaorenyuankeyianzhaoxiangyingdezhuanyejishuzhiwuguanlibanfajinsheng,anyuzijidezhuanyefazhankongjian,buduantigaozhuanyehuashuiping。

congjinnianlaiwoguojiaoyududaosuoqudedechengxiaokan,woguojiaoyududaodejizhiwuyishichenggongde,buranwufajieshiwoguojiaoyuzhilianghezhengtiguimoxunsutigaodexianzhuang。dancongshijianzhongcunzaideyixiewentiyijitishengjiaoyududaozhiliangdeqiwanglaikan,diaozhengneixieyijingkaishizhiyuedudaozhiliangtishengchanshengfuxiaoyingdeneirong,yeshibiyaode。

laiyuan|《shehuikexuezhanxian》 2018 niandi 6 qi

信息来源:《社会科学战线》 作者: 编辑:
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